【Unlocking Word Meanings】
Read the following words/expressions found in today’s article.
1. refrain /rɪˈfreɪn/ (v.) – to stop from doing or saying something
Example: He refrained from smoking after being diagnosed with tuberculosis.
2. symptom /ˈsɪmp təm/ (n.) – a physical or behavioral change resulting from a disease
Example: The symptoms of diabetes include weight loss and excessive thirst.
3. struggle /ˈstrʌg əl/ (v.) – to experience difficulty in doing something
Example: She struggles to quit drinking.
4. euphoria /yuˈfɔr i ə/ (n.) – a feeling of intense excitement and happiness
Example: Illegal drugs can cause euphoria.
5. interval /ˈɪn tər vəl/ (n.) – a period between two periods of time or events
Example: She had a two-hour interval between eating and smoking.
Read the text below.
Researchers from the University of Copenhagen [koh-puh n-HEY-guh n] recommend that people wanting to quit smoking must slowly refrain from the habit and not suddenly stop.
According to the study, suddenly stopping cigarette use can harm the brain. Through brain scans, the researchers observed that regular smokers who did not smoke for 12 hours had 17% lower oxygen and blood flow in the brain than nonsmokers. Other studies have shown that regular smokers who suddenly stopped the habit experienced inattentiveness, depression, anxiety, and irritability. These symptoms explain why many smokers struggle in quitting.
Nicotine, the chemical present in cigarettes, makes smoking an addictive habit. Studies show that nicotine consumption can provide euphoria and relaxation to a person. Cigarette use is also linked to improved memory and better concentration. However, exposure to nicotine can cause increased heart rate and oxygen demand by the cardiac muscle. Common diseases caused by cigarette smoking include heart disease, stroke, and lung cancer.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one in every five Americans smoked cigarettes in 2013. Also, over 20% of adult males and more than 15% of adult females in the United States were smokers. Smoking was also associated with almost 20% of the recorded deaths in the country.
One way to slowly quit cigarette use is through scheduled smoking. The method is done by setting a specific time for smoking and by limiting the number of sticks to be consumed. A smoker can then add intervals between smoking periods to help lessen and eventually eliminate the habit. Other methods include picking a specific date to quit smoking and using nicotine replacement products like patches and inhalers.
Enjoy a discussion with your tutor.
· Why do you think many people still smoke despite the cigarette’s harmful effects?
· Do you think scheduled smoking is an effective method? Why do you say so?
· What do you think causes someone to be a cigarette smoker?
· Do you approve of the anti-smoking laws in Japan? Kindly explain.