【Unlocking Word Meanings】
Read the following words/expressions found in today’s article.
1. manipulative / məˈnɪpjəˌletɪv / (adj.) – being very controlling toward other people
Example: His manipulative brother always gets what he wants.
2. arrogant /ˈerəɡənt/ (adj.) – making claims to being superior or better than others
Example: Winning the contest made him arrogant.
3. entitlement / enˈtaɪtəlmənt / (n.) – the state of believing that one deserves to have something
Example: His sense of entitlement is sometimes annoying.
4. vain / veɪn / (adj.) – very proud of one’s own appearance or qualities
Example: My friend is vain, especially when it comes to her appearance.
5. empathy / ˈɛm pə θi / (n.) – the state of understanding another person’s feelings or experiences
Example: I can see his empathy for homeless people.
Read the text below.
Men, regardless of their age, are more likely to become narcissistic than women, a new study revealed.
Researchers from the University at Buffalo School of Management conducted the study based on data from over 475,000 participants. They looked into some human characteristics that are considered least attractive. Among these characteristics were being manipulative, self-absorbed, aggressive, and arrogant.
The researchers examined narcissism based on three aspects—entitlement, authority, and exhibitionism. Among these aspects, they found the widest gender gap in entitlement, which suggests that men tend to feel more entitled to privileges than women. The second largest difference was in authority, proposing that men are more assertive and have a stronger desire for power. However, both genders were equal in terms of exhibitionism. Thus, both men and women tend to demonstrate vanity.
Researchers said that the narcissism gap between men and women may be a result of societal gender stereotypes. Emily Grijalva [gri-HAL-va], a psychology professor, pointed out that women often do not display narcissism because they get criticized for being aggressive or authoritative.
According to Psychology Today, a narcissistic person is self-centered, vain, and manipulative. If this behavior becomes extreme, it may lead to having a Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). NPD is characterized by being too selfish to the point of having little to no empathy for others.
However, being narcissistic is not always a negative thing. According to a study in 2011, narcissism is associated with being satisfied in life, specifically among adolescents and young adults. Another study from the same year also found that narcissism is linked with having a low level of anxiety and high confidence.
Enjoy a discussion with your tutor.
· Do you agree with the results of the study? Why or why not?
· What do you think about people with narcissism?
· Why is it important to have confidence?
· How can a person’s confidence be developed?